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By Dr. Jeff Zweerink
Does the multiverse exist? Well, multiverse models might qualify as scientific, and the Bible does not clearly rule out the possibility. In past articles, I have argued that Christians need not fear the multiverse because multiverse models appear to have a beginning and exhibit design. Nevertheless, we should exercise caution. One key criticism of multiverse models pertains to the assumptions and testable claims (or lack thereof) they make. In an article published in Scientific American, eminent cosmologist George F. R. Ellis articulates some problems that multiverse models must resolve in order to truly claim a scientific basis.1
Outer space almost certainly extends beyond what we can see. Scientists are trying to understand how our observable universe fits within this larger picture. Do these other regions have the same initial distribution of matter and energy as ours? Do the physical constants vary? Do the laws of physics take a different form? Are any of these proposed differences even permissible or likely?
These are all good questions. The only way to develop answers is to extrapolate what we know about our observable universe to infer knowledge about regions we will never see. However, of necessity, our uncertainty about those extrapolations increases at larger distances. Multiverse-model conclusions depend on the assumptions made about the proper way to extrapolate. But we will never be able to directly measure these regions to validate or falsify any of these assumptions!
More detailed knowledge about inflation, the cosmic microwave background, and a quantum theory of gravity might tell us that regions beyond the observable universe exist. Yet it seems that scientific studies will never provide any testable knowledge about the properties of those regions…
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