The Methodology Behind the Teleological Argument
by Max Andrews
The argument from design is modest in what it purports. The final claim and conclusion is that there is an extremely intelligent and personal mind, which is responsible for the design in the universe. The Greek word, telos, is an end goal or purpose. The design argument was first developed by the ancient Greeks and popularized by William Paley (1743-1805). The objections to Paley, which served as a catalyst for the arguments popularity among science and philosophy, were purported by David Hume (1711-1776).
The current state of the argument has gained considerable advances in interest in philosophy, theology, science, and even culture. Cambridge physicist Stephen Hawking purported in his recent [paradoxically titled] book, The Grand Design, that the universe no longer needs intervention or a supernatural being to account for the design and creation of the universe. Most of the interests in the design argument are advances in the scientific account for the beginning of the universe, which are used to argue against the fine-tuning, which will be evaluated.
It is paramount to explicate from the beginning that this is philosophy of science. This practice is not theological. The argument is a posteriori gathered from the natural sciences. The method by which design will be inferred is a historical science. There are four differences between a historical science and a laboratory science. First, repeatability is not applicable in the historical sciences; it is a metacriterion for laboratory science. Second, historical science assumes uniformitarianism, that is, there are presently known causes to phenomena, which can be inferred by perceived effects. Third, the theories and explanatory hypotheses must lay in empirical harms way. The conclusions must be falsifiable. It should be noted that the type of scientific inquiry will be that of an Augustinian science as opposed to a Duhemian science. Augustinian science permits and carries open metaphysical presuppositions with science. Duhemian science strips science of all metaphysical imports. This point yields to the final distinction, which is the understanding that historical science must use non-controversial reasoning. The controversial claim for the design proponent is simply the introduction of intelligent causation. However, this is not as controversial as much of the scientific community makes it out to be. Agency is publically accepted evidence by experience…
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