What the Kalam tells us about God’s existence
by Lenny Esposito
From the earliest days of philosophy, it has been noted that you can’t get a something from a nothing. Now this is pretty intuitive, right? How can you get a thing out of nothing? Nothing by its very nature is a no-thing. The universe is a created thing. It would seem then that the universe couldn’t come from nothing, but had to come from something else. This concept didn’t escape a brilliant Catholic philosopher named Thomas Aquinas who lived in the 13th century. He used the idea to build his argument for the existence of God. Aquinas argued that God must be the ultimate cause five different ways, but the biggest one, the one that draws the most attention, is what we call the First Cause.
Aquinas noticed that no matter what you look at, no matter what you see or experience, it is tied to some kind of an event; something happened. A baby is born or a person dies; whatever the event, it will have a cause associated with it. So for example, the fact that I’m alive means there’s a cause for the existence of my life. Like our questioner above, Aquinas started working his way backwards. Well, if that had a cause, then this had a cause, and this had a cause… And all of these things we see simultaneously have causes. It may be a single cause, it may be a complex set of causes, but they all have a cause someplace. So there’s this huge chain of events that have to lead back
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somewhere. What was the first cause? So Thomas Aquinas argued that God would be the First Cause. He would be the un-caused cause. And that was his big push for the five ways; God is this un-caused cause.
As I’ve shown in a previous blog post, the idea that the universe is infinitely old doesn’t make sense anymore. Because we can show the universe had a beginning, I want to restate the argument from existence in a way that gives more clarity to what we’re really trying to prove.
Given that we can show the universe had a beginning, I want to restate the argument from existence in a slightly different way, one that gives more clarity to what we’re really trying to prove. We have already agreed that a thing cannot come from nothing. In saying such, we are also claiming that the “thing” in question has a beginning. So a better way to state our argument is, “Whatever begins to exist has a cause.” Put into a formal logical structure, the argument from existence can be framed this way…
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