The Vagueness of “Morality”
by Kyle Hendricks
I’ve seen plenty of statements along these lines over the years: “Can evolution explain morality?” “Morality doesn’t come from religion!” “Can morality exist without God?” “Evolution cannot explain morality!” and so on and so forth. The questions or statements seem straightforward enough, but they aren’t straightforward when we consider that the word “morality” is a bit vague. What do people mean by “morality” when asking these questions or making these claims? There are at least three things people can mean by “morality.”
These would be our actions, like helping people or hurting people.
These are what we believe to be right or wrong, good or bad.
These are objective facts as to what is right or wrong independent of our opinions and behaviors. Just as there is a fact of the matter that the Earth revolves around the Sun or that Europa is one of Jupiter’s moons, there is also a fact that certain things are morally good and certain things are morally bad (there is a discussion on exactly what form these facts take or what kinds of facts moral values could be, but I will not get into that here).
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So if someone is asking whether evolution can explain “morality” or not, what does he mean by “morality”? It seems completely clear that evolution and sociology can explain why people exhibit certain moral behaviors and have moral beliefs, so it can explain morality in that sense. As Richard Dawkins says
We now have four good Darwinian reasons for individuals to be altruistic, generous or ‘moral’ towards each other. First, there is the special case of genetic kinship. Second, there is reciprocation: the repayment of favours given, and the giving of favours in ‘anticipation’ of payback. Following on from this there is, third, the Darwinian benefit of acquiring a reputation for generosity and kindness. And fourth, if Zahavi is right, there is the particular additional benefit of conspicuous generosity as a way of buying unfakeably authentic advertising. (The God Delusion, pg. 251)
However, that doesn’t mean that evolution and sociology can explain moral facts if they exist, given a certain view of moral facts (non-naturalism). Some people may believe that morality only exists in the first two ways, but not in the third. If someone is trying to argue that morality only comes from God, that person can just mean moral facts without meaning moral beliefs or behaviors…