Secularism attempts to explain away evil as a cognitive malfunction. Evil is defined as a tendency to conform, or better still, mere lack of empathy. This is deeply unconvincing –as if Hitler merely lacked the right neurons in the right number! Efforts to quantify evil or to reduce it to scientific categories ignore the existential shock to our consciences. We recoil from it as something unnatural, something that ought not to be. Evil is irreducibly moral and spiritual, which makes it rather difficult for modern secularism to describe it in convincing terms. —Graham Veale (from: Secularism and the Nature of Evil)