Beyond Science: Understanding Real Knowledge
by Lenny Esposito
In previous articles, I looked at how many people make the mistake of assuming that science is the only way we can know something is true. We showed how this view, known as scientism, must be false since it is self-refuting. This time, I thought we’d look at the idea of how we know that we know anything at all and how to better understand the differences between knowledge and beliefs.
Types of Knowledge
Philosophers have spent a lot of time on understanding what it means when we say we know this or that. In their book Philosophical Foundations for a Christian Worldview, J.P. Moreland and William Lane Craig identify three basic types of knowing. The most basic type is knowledge by acquaintance which is simply that you have had some type of direct experience with an object or idea and therefore know it to be true. The authors offer an example of “I know the ball is in front of me.” Because the ball is directly present in your conscious experience, you can confidently know that statement to be true. 1
A more debated aspect of this type of knowledge is basic mathematic statements and logical deductions. Some philosophers argue that we know 2+2=4 in the same sense that we know a ball is in front of us. It is directly perceived as true. You don’t have to go out and observe 2+2 in different environments around the world or around the universe to confidently hold that he product will always turn out to be 4. We understand that it just is
that way. Similarly, we experience the same type of understanding when we argue in this way: All men are born. Socrates was a man; therefore Socrates must have been born. That is a logical argument, but we know it to be true directly.
A second way we know something is through know-how. Know-how defines certain skills or abilities one may possess. When someone claims “I know how to play golf”, they are expressing knowledge of ability. Moreland and Craig point out that knowledge of the laws or mechanics is not necessary to hold this type of knowledge. They write “For example, one can know how to adjust one’s swing for a curve ball without consciously being aware that one’s stride is changing or without knowing any background theory of hitting technique.” 2
The third type of knowledge is what is usually debated the most. Known as propositional knowledge this type of knowledge deals with statements that make some kind of claim to fact. Statements such as “I know Abraham Lincoln was the sixteenth president of the United States”, “I know our Sun is 93 million mionles away” or “I know humans evolved from apes” are all propositional statements.
Justified True Beliefs
One of the reasons propositional knowledge has been debated is because it has been more difficult than other types of knowledge to define completely and accurately…
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