Apologetics: Is Inerrancy a Modern Invention?

by Timothy Paul Jones

“Inerrancy” is the belief that the Bible never errs. It’s another way of saying that the Old and New Testaments—as they were originally written—declare what is true and describe accurately what happened in the past. To say the Bible is inerrant is to say that the Scriptures do not affirm anything that is contrary to fact.

Some scholars have argued, however, that the notion of an inerrant Bible is a modern invention and that ancient Christians didn’t believe in the inerrancy of Scripture at all.

So what did Christians in the first few centuries of the church’s story believe about the Bible?

It is true that the earliest Christians didn’t use the word “inerrancy.” And yet, from the earliest stages of Christian history, it’s also true that faithful church leaders treated the Old and New Testaments as God’s inerrant revelation of himself.

The Concept of Inerrancy in the Writings of the Earliest Christians

Take a look at these selections from the writings of church leaders in the first few centuries of Christian history:

  • “You have searched the Scriptures, which are true and given by the Holy Spirit. You know that nothing unrighteous or counterfeit is written in them.” —Clement of Rome, letter to the Corinthians, first century
  • “All Scripture, which has been given to us by God, [is] perfectly consistent. The parables harmonize with the passages that are plain; and statements with a clearer meaning serve to explain the parables.” —Irenaeus of Lyons, Adversus Haereses 2:28, second century
  • “I am entirely convinced that no Scripture contradicts another.” —Justin Martyr, Dialogus cum Tryphone 65, second century
  • “The statements of Holy Scripture will never contradict the truth.” —Tertullian of Carthage, De anima 21, third century
  • “It is the opinion of some that the Scriptures do not agree or that the God who gave them is false. But there is no disagreement at all. Far from it! The Father, who is truth, cannot lie.” —Athanasius of Alexandria, Easter letter 19:3, fourth century
  • “I have learned to give respect and honor to the canonical books of Scripture. Regarding these books alone, I most firmly believe that their authors were completely free from error. If in these writings I am confused by anything which appears to me opposed to the truth, I do not hesitate to suppose that either the manuscript is faulty, or the translator has not caught the meaning of what was said, or I myself have failed to understand it.” —Augustine of Hippo, letter 82, fifth century

Here’s one other quotation that reveals, functionally, how pastors such as Ambrose of Milan applied their understanding of Scripture to their readings of the biblical text…


Apologetics: Is Inerrancy a Modern Invention? – Timothy Paul Jones