Fifty Agreements Among The Resurrection Accounts
by Jason Engwer
One of the most common objections to the New Testament’s resurrection accounts is that there are too many differences among them. There are a lot of ways to respond to that objection. For example, I wrote a series of posts earlier this year that’s partly about how the gospels’ differences are often similar to what we see in other ancient literature, including other ancient biographies. On some of the principles involved in harmonizing the resurrection accounts, see Steve Hays’ posts here and here. And we’ve offered some potential harmonizations of the resurrection accounts, like here. But what I want to focus on in this post is how much the resurrection accounts have in common.
What I’ll be citing is agreement between two or more resurrection accounts in a way that’s consistent with the others. Since some of the accounts, like the closing of Mark’s gospel and Paul’s material on the resurrection at the beginning of 1 Corinthians 15, are so brief, there’s a lot they don’t address. If two or more other accounts agree with each other on a point, but that point isn’t discussed in Mark or 1 Corinthians 15, the agreement among those other accounts is significant anyway.
There are good reasons to accept material that’s only found in one resurrection account. For example, when Matthew (28:9-10) and John (20:14-7) narrate resurrection appearances to one or more of Jesus’ female followers before any appearances to his male disciples, that prominence given to female disciples in such a male-dominated society provides us with some good evidence for those accounts. Likewise, the earliness of the material Paul cites referring to an appearance to more than five hundred people (1 Corinthians 15:6) and Paul’s knowledge of the ongoing status of those witnesses give us good reason to accept the historicity of that resurrection appearance. There’s good evidence for the appearances in Matthew 28:9-10, John 20:14-7, and 1 Corinthians 15:6, even if each appearance is only mentioned in one source. But my focus in this post will be on material found in multiple resurrection accounts.
There are more agreements among the accounts than what I’m going to list. These are just some examples. Since the resurrection accounts in the gospels start with the tomb of Jesus, I’m starting there as well…
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